OK: Found an XML parser.
OK: Support for GZIP encoding.
OK: Support for character munging.

Example Output

Channel: Opinions – Movs.World

RSS URL:

Parsed Results (var_dump'ed)

object(MagpieRSS)#3 (23) {
  ["parser"]=>
  resource(9) of type (Unknown)
  ["current_item"]=>
  array(0) {
  }
  ["items"]=>
  array(10) {
    [0]=>
    array(11) {
      ["title"]=>
      string(70) "The historian Arlette Jouanna, specialist in the 16th century, is dead"
      ["link"]=>
      string(97) "https://movs.world/opinions/the-historian-arlette-jouanna-specialist-in-the-16th-century-is-dead/"
      ["dc"]=>
      array(1) {
        ["creator"]=>
        string(11) "Susan Hally"
      }
      ["pubdate"]=>
      string(31) "Wed, 02 Feb 2022 01:01:31 +0000"
      ["category"]=>
      string(56) "Opinions16thArlettecenturydeadhistorianJouannaspecialist"
      ["guid"]=>
      string(97) "https://movs.world/opinions/the-historian-arlette-jouanna-specialist-in-the-16th-century-is-dead/"
      ["description"]=>
      string(673) "Arlette Jouanna, October 10, 2007. CATHERINE HELIE/GALLIMARD/OPALE 16th century specialiste century whose political, social and religious mysteries she knew like no other, the historian Arlette Jouanna died in Toulouse, on January 29, at the age of 85. If, through her mother, little Arlette Galinat, born on March 24, 1936, has an ancestor, her parents live ... Read more"
      ["content"]=>
      array(1) {
        ["encoded"]=>
        string(4111) "

16th century specialiste century whose political, social and religious mysteries she knew like no other, the historian Arlette Jouanna died in Toulouse, on January 29, at the age of 85.

If, through her mother, little Arlette Galinat, born on March 24, 1936, has an ancestor, her parents live very modestly – the son of a railway worker, her father works in the road service of Clermont-Ferrand and her mother takes care of the home. of their two daughters. Wishing to preserve the schooling of Arlette and Danielle, whom she dreams of seeing teach, she enrolls them in a private school (the Fénelon high school – bad pickaxe, then the Jeanne-d’Arc high school, from the 6e, where the little girls are much happier) before sending them to Paris, to the Camille-Sée high school, at the time of the preparatory classes.

Admitted from the first year to the Ecole Normale Supérieure on Boulevard Jourdan, Arlette was admitted first the following year (1956) as an Anglicist. But, soon, the specialization weighs on her and here she is, branching out into history. Received 5e at the aggregation of history and geography (1960), Arlette Galinat was appointed to the Lycée Edouard-Herriot, in Lyon, but only worked there for one year (1961).

Read also (archive from 1993): Article reserved for our subscribers Death of Roland Mousnier, an opponent of the Annales school

Soon married to a brilliant engineer from the Ponts et Chaussées, Paul Jouanna, whom she met at her sister’s engagement (in 1958, Danielle married her younger brother, Jacques, a Hellenist and future member of the Institute), Arlette – now Jouanna – obtains a secondment to the CNRS, which allows him to follow the seminar of the modernist historian Roland Mousnier (1907-1993) at the Sorbonne. He will become his thesis supervisor; but if it was in Paris-IV that in 1975 she defended her state thesis, “The idea of ​​race in France in the XVIe century and at the beginning of the XVIIe century”, including a free abridged version, Social order, myths and hierarchies in 16th century Francee century published by Hachette in 1977, it was in Montpellier that the historian chose to teach, her husband, originally from the Pyrenees, wishing to return to the Occitan world.

A model of methodology and ethics

In the venerable university, Arlette Jouanna has spent a quarter of a century: assistant (1968), lecturer, then professor (1978) until becoming emeritus (1993). There, his exceptional teaching makes him a methodological as well as an ethical model. The reflection, the rigor, the bibliographical certainty, like the height of view on easily passionate and passionate subjects – the wars of religion and the advent of the imaginary of absolutism -, allow him to achieve clarity without anything sacrifice to the complexity of the issues.

You have 42.87% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" } ["summary"]=> string(673) "Arlette Jouanna, October 10, 2007. CATHERINE HELIE/GALLIMARD/OPALE 16th century specialiste century whose political, social and religious mysteries she knew like no other, the historian Arlette Jouanna died in Toulouse, on January 29, at the age of 85. If, through her mother, little Arlette Galinat, born on March 24, 1936, has an ancestor, her parents live ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4111) "

16th century specialiste century whose political, social and religious mysteries she knew like no other, the historian Arlette Jouanna died in Toulouse, on January 29, at the age of 85.

If, through her mother, little Arlette Galinat, born on March 24, 1936, has an ancestor, her parents live very modestly – the son of a railway worker, her father works in the road service of Clermont-Ferrand and her mother takes care of the home. of their two daughters. Wishing to preserve the schooling of Arlette and Danielle, whom she dreams of seeing teach, she enrolls them in a private school (the Fénelon high school – bad pickaxe, then the Jeanne-d’Arc high school, from the 6e, where the little girls are much happier) before sending them to Paris, to the Camille-Sée high school, at the time of the preparatory classes.

Admitted from the first year to the Ecole Normale Supérieure on Boulevard Jourdan, Arlette was admitted first the following year (1956) as an Anglicist. But, soon, the specialization weighs on her and here she is, branching out into history. Received 5e at the aggregation of history and geography (1960), Arlette Galinat was appointed to the Lycée Edouard-Herriot, in Lyon, but only worked there for one year (1961).

Read also (archive from 1993): Article reserved for our subscribers Death of Roland Mousnier, an opponent of the Annales school

Soon married to a brilliant engineer from the Ponts et Chaussées, Paul Jouanna, whom she met at her sister’s engagement (in 1958, Danielle married her younger brother, Jacques, a Hellenist and future member of the Institute), Arlette – now Jouanna – obtains a secondment to the CNRS, which allows him to follow the seminar of the modernist historian Roland Mousnier (1907-1993) at the Sorbonne. He will become his thesis supervisor; but if it was in Paris-IV that in 1975 she defended her state thesis, “The idea of ​​race in France in the XVIe century and at the beginning of the XVIIe century”, including a free abridged version, Social order, myths and hierarchies in 16th century Francee century published by Hachette in 1977, it was in Montpellier that the historian chose to teach, her husband, originally from the Pyrenees, wishing to return to the Occitan world.

A model of methodology and ethics

In the venerable university, Arlette Jouanna has spent a quarter of a century: assistant (1968), lecturer, then professor (1978) until becoming emeritus (1993). There, his exceptional teaching makes him a methodological as well as an ethical model. The reflection, the rigor, the bibliographical certainty, like the height of view on easily passionate and passionate subjects – the wars of religion and the advent of the imaginary of absolutism -, allow him to achieve clarity without anything sacrifice to the complexity of the issues.

You have 42.87% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1643763691) } [1]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(54) "Why the European Central Bank can’t act on inflation" ["link"]=> string(80) "https://movs.world/opinions/why-the-european-central-bank-cant-act-on-inflation/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Tue, 01 Feb 2022 15:00:39 +0000" ["category"]=> string(39) "OpinionsactBankcentralEuropeaninflation" ["guid"]=> string(80) "https://movs.world/opinions/why-the-european-central-bank-cant-act-on-inflation/" ["description"]=> string(621) "Christine Lagarde, in Frankfurt (Germany), on October 28, 2021. KAI PFAFFENBACH / REUTERS To analyse. image gave her a nickname, in French in the text: « Madame Inflation. » Christine Lagarde, the president of the European Central Bank (ECB), is in the crosshairs of the German tabloid. Inflation in Germany reached 5.7% in December (5% in the ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(3773) "

To analyse. image gave her a nickname, in French in the text: « Madame Inflation. » Christine Lagarde, the president of the European Central Bank (ECB), is in the crosshairs of the German tabloid. Inflation in Germany reached 5.7% in December (5% in the euro zone, 3.4% in France), and the institution is plagued by criticism across the Rhine, accused of leaving interest rates too low and doing nothing to counter the rise in prices.

The ECB is the most accommodating of the major central banks. Everywhere else, interest rates have started to rise. In December, the Bank of England raised its key rate from 0.1% to 0.25%. In the United States, the Federal Reserve (Fed) left no doubt at its meeting on Wednesday January 26: its first rate hike will take place in March.

Read also Inflation: should we be worried about soaring prices in the euro zone? Five questions to understand

Bringing the only discordant note, Mme Lagarde warned in December that a hike in its key rate would “very unlikely” in 2022. The Frankfurt institution is content to gradually reduce its intervention in the markets (from 80 billion euros per month to 20 billion euros by the end of the year). Its key rate remains, however, at a historically low level, at -0.5%. Taking inflation into account, this means that the real rate is close to -6%, at its lowest since the 1950s. The next meeting of the Governing Council, Thursday February 3, should not change anything: the ECB wait to see.

However, it has three solid arguments for acting differently from the rest of its peers: inflation in the euro zone remains more limited than in the rest of the Western world; there are still good reasons to think that the phenomenon will partly subside; the ECB, above all, is not a central bank like the others, having to maintain the unity of a single currency that is still very disparate.

A debated theory

The first argument is therefore that the economic situation is very different: inflation in the euro zone is 5%, against 7% across the Atlantic. The current European level had been reached by the United States… in May 2021, when almost no one was talking about a rate hike. American households benefited from a massive stimulus package in the spring of 2021, much larger than what Europeans have experienced.

The second argument is more controversial. It boils down to one word, which Jerome Powell, the chairman of the Fed, has now decided to no longer use: the current phenomenon is ” temporary “.

You have 57.4% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" } ["summary"]=> string(621) "Christine Lagarde, in Frankfurt (Germany), on October 28, 2021. KAI PFAFFENBACH / REUTERS To analyse. image gave her a nickname, in French in the text: « Madame Inflation. » Christine Lagarde, the president of the European Central Bank (ECB), is in the crosshairs of the German tabloid. Inflation in Germany reached 5.7% in December (5% in the ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(3773) "

To analyse. image gave her a nickname, in French in the text: « Madame Inflation. » Christine Lagarde, the president of the European Central Bank (ECB), is in the crosshairs of the German tabloid. Inflation in Germany reached 5.7% in December (5% in the euro zone, 3.4% in France), and the institution is plagued by criticism across the Rhine, accused of leaving interest rates too low and doing nothing to counter the rise in prices.

The ECB is the most accommodating of the major central banks. Everywhere else, interest rates have started to rise. In December, the Bank of England raised its key rate from 0.1% to 0.25%. In the United States, the Federal Reserve (Fed) left no doubt at its meeting on Wednesday January 26: its first rate hike will take place in March.

Read also Inflation: should we be worried about soaring prices in the euro zone? Five questions to understand

Bringing the only discordant note, Mme Lagarde warned in December that a hike in its key rate would “very unlikely” in 2022. The Frankfurt institution is content to gradually reduce its intervention in the markets (from 80 billion euros per month to 20 billion euros by the end of the year). Its key rate remains, however, at a historically low level, at -0.5%. Taking inflation into account, this means that the real rate is close to -6%, at its lowest since the 1950s. The next meeting of the Governing Council, Thursday February 3, should not change anything: the ECB wait to see.

However, it has three solid arguments for acting differently from the rest of its peers: inflation in the euro zone remains more limited than in the rest of the Western world; there are still good reasons to think that the phenomenon will partly subside; the ECB, above all, is not a central bank like the others, having to maintain the unity of a single currency that is still very disparate.

A debated theory

The first argument is therefore that the economic situation is very different: inflation in the euro zone is 5%, against 7% across the Atlantic. The current European level had been reached by the United States… in May 2021, when almost no one was talking about a rate hike. American households benefited from a massive stimulus package in the spring of 2021, much larger than what Europeans have experienced.

The second argument is more controversial. It boils down to one word, which Jerome Powell, the chairman of the Fed, has now decided to no longer use: the current phenomenon is ” temporary “.

You have 57.4% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1643727639) } [2]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(36) "“Work accidents kill in silence”" ["link"]=> string(59) "https://movs.world/opinions/work-accidents-kill-in-silence/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 29 Jan 2022 06:51:34 +0000" ["category"]=> string(32) "Opinionsaccidentskillsilencework" ["guid"]=> string(59) "https://movs.world/opinions/work-accidents-kill-in-silence/" ["description"]=> string(559) "A worker on a construction site in Bordeaux, September 14, 2021. PHILIPPE LOPEZ / AFP Chronic. It is an invisible carnage, a sum of tragedies of “insecurity” for which no minister ever travels. At a time when “social issues” are making a strong comeback, it is said, in the presidential campaign, the 733 employees who ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4562) "

Chronic. It is an invisible carnage, a sum of tragedies of “insecurity” for which no minister ever travels. At a time when “social issues” are making a strong comeback, it is said, in the presidential campaign, the 733 employees who died in one year in work accidents (2019 figures, last known), i.e. two per day, form a procession of ghosts to which society, political debate in general, and in particular the left, yet in search of reunion with the people, resolutely turn their backs.

These forgotten dead have names. Their names are Romain Torres, a 17-year-old apprentice lumberjack, hit by a tree trunk on a forest site in Bas-Rhin on June 28, 2018. Or Teddy Lenglos, 20, laborer in the construction industry, buried on January 10, 2020 under the rubble after the collapse of a wall in Béthune (Pas-de-Calais). Ou Chahi, 41, bicycle delivery man for Uber Eats, died hit by a car in Sotteville-lès-Rouen (Seine-Maritime), May 6, 2021. Ou Abdoulaye Soumahoro, 41, fell into a concrete mixer on May 22 December 2020 on the Grand Paris Express construction site.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Between the opacity of the figures and the indifference of the authorities, the deaths at work still largely ignored

Since 2016, Matthieu Lépine, professor of history and geography in Montreuil (Seine-Saint-Denis), has undertaken to give visibility to these tragedies, to bring their victims out of their anonymity, to reconstruct their lives in order to make them pass “from news item to social fact”. His Twitter account, opened in 2019 and entitled “Work accident: silence of the workers die”, is followed by more than 40,000 people. He publishes there the articles of the press which he analyzes systematically, challenges the Minister of Labour, follows the – rare – legal proceedings, pays homage to those who “killed on the job”, connect their families. Friday, January 28, he already counted 24 deaths since the start of the new year.

Only such a militant initiative can account for this buried phenomenon. Because no official statistics account for all work accidents occurring in France. According to Medicare, 655,715 work accidents led to a work stoppage of at least one day in 2019. But this number does not include those of which civil servants are victims, nor those which affect “self-employed workers”, who are not systematically taken care of. However, everything suggests that it is among delivery people, self-employed drivers and other uberized personnel that the scourge of work accidents is now proliferating.

You have 57.35% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" } ["summary"]=> string(559) "A worker on a construction site in Bordeaux, September 14, 2021. PHILIPPE LOPEZ / AFP Chronic. It is an invisible carnage, a sum of tragedies of “insecurity” for which no minister ever travels. At a time when “social issues” are making a strong comeback, it is said, in the presidential campaign, the 733 employees who ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4562) "

Chronic. It is an invisible carnage, a sum of tragedies of “insecurity” for which no minister ever travels. At a time when “social issues” are making a strong comeback, it is said, in the presidential campaign, the 733 employees who died in one year in work accidents (2019 figures, last known), i.e. two per day, form a procession of ghosts to which society, political debate in general, and in particular the left, yet in search of reunion with the people, resolutely turn their backs.

These forgotten dead have names. Their names are Romain Torres, a 17-year-old apprentice lumberjack, hit by a tree trunk on a forest site in Bas-Rhin on June 28, 2018. Or Teddy Lenglos, 20, laborer in the construction industry, buried on January 10, 2020 under the rubble after the collapse of a wall in Béthune (Pas-de-Calais). Ou Chahi, 41, bicycle delivery man for Uber Eats, died hit by a car in Sotteville-lès-Rouen (Seine-Maritime), May 6, 2021. Ou Abdoulaye Soumahoro, 41, fell into a concrete mixer on May 22 December 2020 on the Grand Paris Express construction site.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Between the opacity of the figures and the indifference of the authorities, the deaths at work still largely ignored

Since 2016, Matthieu Lépine, professor of history and geography in Montreuil (Seine-Saint-Denis), has undertaken to give visibility to these tragedies, to bring their victims out of their anonymity, to reconstruct their lives in order to make them pass “from news item to social fact”. His Twitter account, opened in 2019 and entitled “Work accident: silence of the workers die”, is followed by more than 40,000 people. He publishes there the articles of the press which he analyzes systematically, challenges the Minister of Labour, follows the – rare – legal proceedings, pays homage to those who “killed on the job”, connect their families. Friday, January 28, he already counted 24 deaths since the start of the new year.

Only such a militant initiative can account for this buried phenomenon. Because no official statistics account for all work accidents occurring in France. According to Medicare, 655,715 work accidents led to a work stoppage of at least one day in 2019. But this number does not include those of which civil servants are victims, nor those which affect “self-employed workers”, who are not systematically taken care of. However, everything suggests that it is among delivery people, self-employed drivers and other uberized personnel that the scourge of work accidents is now proliferating.

You have 57.35% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1643439094) } [3]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(81) "“I’m right, you’re wrong! by Timothy Williamson: certainty has no children" ["link"]=> string(97) "https://movs.world/opinions/im-right-youre-wrong-by-timothy-williamson-certainty-has-no-children/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Fri, 28 Jan 2022 00:48:36 +0000" ["category"]=> string(52) "OpinionscertaintychildrenTimothyWilliamsonwrongyoure" ["guid"]=> string(97) "https://movs.world/opinions/im-right-youre-wrong-by-timothy-williamson-certainty-has-no-children/" ["description"]=> string(782) "“The Philosophical Lamp”, by René Magritte (1936). ADAGP, PARIS, 2022/R. MAGRITTE PHOTOTHEQUE/ADAGP IMAGES, 2022 “I’m right, you’re wrong! Philosophical Dialogue” (I’m Right, You’re Wrong. Tetralogue), by Timothy Williamson, translated from English by Antoine Dang Van, Eliott, “La part des choses”, 198 p., €17.50. Of course Sarah can’t take Pierre seriously when he announces to her ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4536) "

“I’m right, you’re wrong! Philosophical Dialogue” (I’m Right, You’re Wrong. Tetralogue), by Timothy Williamson, translated from English by Antoine Dang Van, Eliott, “La part des choses”, 198 p., €17.50.

Of course Sarah can’t take Pierre seriously when he announces to her that he has a witch for a neighbour, and that he owes her that leg in plaster which surprised her friend when she met him on the train. Sarah wants to believe that the old lady had glared at her shortly before the accident. She freely admits that he was particularly unlucky when, while planting bulbs, he saw the wall of his garden collapse on top of him. But witches don’t exist, do they? The wall had to fall at that time, it’s a coincidence, and that’s it for this unfortunate affair.

Except that it is not enough to be convinced of being right for your interlocutor to be convinced of being wrong. Pierre does not budge and, however preposterous the evidence that obsesses him, no evidence to the contrary is necessary – how, exactly, does one prove the non-existence of anything? So that the railway controversy between the scientist and the superstitious takes the turn of a philosophical dialogue, and that I’m right, you’re wrong!, the first book translated into French by Timothy Williamson, professor of logic at Oxford, soars towards what seems to be its goal: to dissect vividly, in the movements of everyday conversation, the mechanisms of thought, such as they get carried away when you leave your certainties to rub them against those of others.

The shadow of Plato, Hume, John Stuart Mill, Wittgenstein, Foucault

Such also as they reveal all the underlying philosophy with which our discussions abound, as soon shown by the irruption in the debate of two new interlocutors, Zac the relativist peacemaker – “Each of your views is legitimate on its own terms. (…) “True” is a very dangerous word, Sarah” – and Roxana the annoying logician – “Obviously, you don’t know much about logic” –, which transform the dialogue into a general review of philosophical positions on the true and the false, the probable and the certain, belief and knowledge, as well as on the validity of moral judgments.

Read also (2020): Article reserved for our subscribers The philosopher Maurizio Ferraris sheds real light on “Post-truth and other enigmas”

Partial or universal relativism, rational absolutism, sometimes tempered with probabilism (there is no truth, only probability) or fallibilism (in any case, human thought is always capable of error), clash. Aristotle, Nietzsche and the Polish logician Alfred Tarski (1901-1983) are summoned. We can see the shadow of Plato, of Hume, of John Stuart Mill, of Wittgenstein, of Foucault. All of this, however, is rarely made explicit. We recognize it, or not, and the book – it is possible to regret it – is not accompanied by notes or a bibliography. He leaves you alone with your desire to understand. But it offers more than satisfying it: it increases it, spurs you on, sets you in motion.

You have 35.8% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" } ["summary"]=> string(782) "“The Philosophical Lamp”, by René Magritte (1936). ADAGP, PARIS, 2022/R. MAGRITTE PHOTOTHEQUE/ADAGP IMAGES, 2022 “I’m right, you’re wrong! Philosophical Dialogue” (I’m Right, You’re Wrong. Tetralogue), by Timothy Williamson, translated from English by Antoine Dang Van, Eliott, “La part des choses”, 198 p., €17.50. Of course Sarah can’t take Pierre seriously when he announces to her ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4536) "

“I’m right, you’re wrong! Philosophical Dialogue” (I’m Right, You’re Wrong. Tetralogue), by Timothy Williamson, translated from English by Antoine Dang Van, Eliott, “La part des choses”, 198 p., €17.50.

Of course Sarah can’t take Pierre seriously when he announces to her that he has a witch for a neighbour, and that he owes her that leg in plaster which surprised her friend when she met him on the train. Sarah wants to believe that the old lady had glared at her shortly before the accident. She freely admits that he was particularly unlucky when, while planting bulbs, he saw the wall of his garden collapse on top of him. But witches don’t exist, do they? The wall had to fall at that time, it’s a coincidence, and that’s it for this unfortunate affair.

Except that it is not enough to be convinced of being right for your interlocutor to be convinced of being wrong. Pierre does not budge and, however preposterous the evidence that obsesses him, no evidence to the contrary is necessary – how, exactly, does one prove the non-existence of anything? So that the railway controversy between the scientist and the superstitious takes the turn of a philosophical dialogue, and that I’m right, you’re wrong!, the first book translated into French by Timothy Williamson, professor of logic at Oxford, soars towards what seems to be its goal: to dissect vividly, in the movements of everyday conversation, the mechanisms of thought, such as they get carried away when you leave your certainties to rub them against those of others.

The shadow of Plato, Hume, John Stuart Mill, Wittgenstein, Foucault

Such also as they reveal all the underlying philosophy with which our discussions abound, as soon shown by the irruption in the debate of two new interlocutors, Zac the relativist peacemaker – “Each of your views is legitimate on its own terms. (…) “True” is a very dangerous word, Sarah” – and Roxana the annoying logician – “Obviously, you don’t know much about logic” –, which transform the dialogue into a general review of philosophical positions on the true and the false, the probable and the certain, belief and knowledge, as well as on the validity of moral judgments.

Read also (2020): Article reserved for our subscribers The philosopher Maurizio Ferraris sheds real light on “Post-truth and other enigmas”

Partial or universal relativism, rational absolutism, sometimes tempered with probabilism (there is no truth, only probability) or fallibilism (in any case, human thought is always capable of error), clash. Aristotle, Nietzsche and the Polish logician Alfred Tarski (1901-1983) are summoned. We can see the shadow of Plato, of Hume, of John Stuart Mill, of Wittgenstein, of Foucault. All of this, however, is rarely made explicit. We recognize it, or not, and the book – it is possible to regret it – is not accompanied by notes or a bibliography. He leaves you alone with your desire to understand. But it offers more than satisfying it: it increases it, spurs you on, sets you in motion.

You have 35.8% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1643330916) } [4]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(48) "“Africa is a continent, it is not a country”" ["link"]=> string(70) "https://movs.world/opinions/africa-is-a-continent-it-is-not-a-country/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Thu, 27 Jan 2022 14:47:34 +0000" ["category"]=> string(30) "OpinionsAfricacontinentcountry" ["guid"]=> string(70) "https://movs.world/opinions/africa-is-a-continent-it-is-not-a-country/" ["description"]=> string(585) "In Douala (Cameroon), January 24, 2022. CHARLY TRIBALLEAU / AFP Chronic. These days, Africa is celebrated in unison on the sometimes dented lawns of Douala, Bafoussam or Limbé. The African Cup of Nations (CAN), which is held in Cameroon until February 6, is a moment of continental effervescence allowing countries as distant as Morocco and ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4141) "

Chronic. These days, Africa is celebrated in unison on the sometimes dented lawns of Douala, Bafoussam or Limbé. The African Cup of Nations (CAN), which is held in Cameroon until February 6, is a moment of continental effervescence allowing countries as distant as Morocco and Malawi or Côte d’Ivoire and Egypt to meet in stadiums.

With “Le Monde Afrique”, follow AFCON 2022 on WhatsApp

As the tournament reminds us, Africa is a continent in its own right. It has its rituals (the CAN is one of them), its institutions, such as the African Union and, even more, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC), which has played a leading role in the management of the pandemic, and its own development projects. Among these, let us mention the African Continental Free Trade Area (Zlecaf), this ambitious project which aims to set up a vast common market.

Africa is a continent, not a country. It may seem incongruous to recall it, yet this aggregate of 54 nations is still too often referred to as a uniform whole. Africa Is Not a Country is precisely the title of a book to be published in April in the United Kingdom and classified among the recommended readings for 2022 by the Financial Times. Under the pen of Dipo Faloyin – this Chicago-born journalist who grew up in Nigeria and lives in London – the essay aims to break stereotypes about a region “often simplistically described as a red, arid land, home only to safaris and famines”, according to the presentation note.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers The African Free Trade Area takes a small step forward

What about expressions such as “the African city” or “the African consumer”? Is it relevant to want to compare the socio-economic evolution of the continent with that of India or China? Should we devote a cultural season to Africa, as Emmanuel Macron did with Africa2020, when this type of event generally focuses on a single country?

Various situations and needs

Africa, let us remember, extends over an immense territory: as large as the United States, Mexico, China, Japan, India and a good part of the European countries combined. Africa is above all plural: genetic diversity is greater there than on any other continent. At least 2,000 different languages ​​are spoken there. As for the ecosystems, far from being only made up of savannahs and deserts, they also include tropical forests, mountain ranges, large lakes, islands…

By this yardstick, certain phenomena do not fail to astonish. Like when, in 2014, the outbreak of the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone and Guinea caused a drop in tourism in Tanzania. Would we give up a trip to India because there is a stir in South Korea?

You have 36.64% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" } ["summary"]=> string(585) "In Douala (Cameroon), January 24, 2022. CHARLY TRIBALLEAU / AFP Chronic. These days, Africa is celebrated in unison on the sometimes dented lawns of Douala, Bafoussam or Limbé. The African Cup of Nations (CAN), which is held in Cameroon until February 6, is a moment of continental effervescence allowing countries as distant as Morocco and ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4141) "

Chronic. These days, Africa is celebrated in unison on the sometimes dented lawns of Douala, Bafoussam or Limbé. The African Cup of Nations (CAN), which is held in Cameroon until February 6, is a moment of continental effervescence allowing countries as distant as Morocco and Malawi or Côte d’Ivoire and Egypt to meet in stadiums.

With “Le Monde Afrique”, follow AFCON 2022 on WhatsApp

As the tournament reminds us, Africa is a continent in its own right. It has its rituals (the CAN is one of them), its institutions, such as the African Union and, even more, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC), which has played a leading role in the management of the pandemic, and its own development projects. Among these, let us mention the African Continental Free Trade Area (Zlecaf), this ambitious project which aims to set up a vast common market.

Africa is a continent, not a country. It may seem incongruous to recall it, yet this aggregate of 54 nations is still too often referred to as a uniform whole. Africa Is Not a Country is precisely the title of a book to be published in April in the United Kingdom and classified among the recommended readings for 2022 by the Financial Times. Under the pen of Dipo Faloyin – this Chicago-born journalist who grew up in Nigeria and lives in London – the essay aims to break stereotypes about a region “often simplistically described as a red, arid land, home only to safaris and famines”, according to the presentation note.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers The African Free Trade Area takes a small step forward

What about expressions such as “the African city” or “the African consumer”? Is it relevant to want to compare the socio-economic evolution of the continent with that of India or China? Should we devote a cultural season to Africa, as Emmanuel Macron did with Africa2020, when this type of event generally focuses on a single country?

Various situations and needs

Africa, let us remember, extends over an immense territory: as large as the United States, Mexico, China, Japan, India and a good part of the European countries combined. Africa is above all plural: genetic diversity is greater there than on any other continent. At least 2,000 different languages ​​are spoken there. As for the ecosystems, far from being only made up of savannahs and deserts, they also include tropical forests, mountain ranges, large lakes, islands…

By this yardstick, certain phenomena do not fail to astonish. Like when, in 2014, the outbreak of the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone and Guinea caused a drop in tourism in Tanzania. Would we give up a trip to India because there is a stir in South Korea?

You have 36.64% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1643294854) } [5]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(41) "“Novak Djokovic, Twitter and antivax”" ["link"]=> string(63) "https://movs.world/opinions/novak-djokovic-twitter-and-antivax/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Wed, 26 Jan 2022 08:45:48 +0000" ["category"]=> string(35) "OpinionsantivaxDjokovicNovakTwitter" ["guid"]=> string(63) "https://movs.world/opinions/novak-djokovic-twitter-and-antivax/" ["description"]=> string(564) "At Twitter headquarters in San Francisco, California on January 11, 2021. STEPHEN LAM / REUTERS Chronic. After a media saga of more than ten days, Novak Djokovic was expelled from Australia on Sunday January 16. Australian Immigration Minister Alex Hawke announced it himself on Twitter : this decision was taken to preserve public order and ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4309) "

Chronic. After a media saga of more than ten days, Novak Djokovic was expelled from Australia on Sunday January 16. Australian Immigration Minister Alex Hawke announced it himself on Twitter : this decision was taken to preserve public order and not to threaten the success of the vaccination campaign against Covid-19 in the country.

This threat may seem trivial when nearly 92% of Australians are now vaccinated. But the research clearly shows that the positions of celebrities on public health issues have a great influence, often much more important than those of scientists (“ Designing Effective Celebrity Public Health Messaging : Results from a Nationwide Twitter Experiment in Indonesia », Vivi Alatas, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Markus Mobius, Benjamin A. Olken et Cindy Paladines, 2020).

Read also Are “classic” antivax the same as those that refuse the Covid-19 vaccine?

The authors conducted a Twitter experiment in Indonesia as part of a childhood immunization campaign in 2015-2016. Thirty-seven celebrities (television or music stars, actors and actresses, political figures or prominent intellectuals), with an average of 260,000 followers each on Twitter – more than 11 million people in total –, as well as more than 1,000 “ordinary” individuals with Twitter accounts took part in this experiment. This consisted of observing the behavior of users of the social network and comparing the effect of the same message on vaccination when it comes from a celebrity rather than an ordinary individual. The authors also studied the difference between a celebrity simply retweeting a message and being the author.

Facts and Beliefs

The same tweet is 72% more likely to be retweeted when it comes from a celebrity than an ordinary person. The effect is much stronger when the celebrity is the author of the tweet, rather than when they retweet. Celebrity posts don’t just affect behavior on social media. The survey found that celebrity followers who tweeted about vaccinations were more knowledgeable about the vaccine than celebrity followers who did not tweet. Celebrity tweets were also associated with higher vaccination rates among followers’ relatives. In addition, these tweets were particularly effective in combating misinformation, such as the myth that the vaccine would not be halal.

You have 34.46% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" } ["summary"]=> string(564) "At Twitter headquarters in San Francisco, California on January 11, 2021. STEPHEN LAM / REUTERS Chronic. After a media saga of more than ten days, Novak Djokovic was expelled from Australia on Sunday January 16. Australian Immigration Minister Alex Hawke announced it himself on Twitter : this decision was taken to preserve public order and ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4309) "

Chronic. After a media saga of more than ten days, Novak Djokovic was expelled from Australia on Sunday January 16. Australian Immigration Minister Alex Hawke announced it himself on Twitter : this decision was taken to preserve public order and not to threaten the success of the vaccination campaign against Covid-19 in the country.

This threat may seem trivial when nearly 92% of Australians are now vaccinated. But the research clearly shows that the positions of celebrities on public health issues have a great influence, often much more important than those of scientists (“ Designing Effective Celebrity Public Health Messaging : Results from a Nationwide Twitter Experiment in Indonesia », Vivi Alatas, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Markus Mobius, Benjamin A. Olken et Cindy Paladines, 2020).

Read also Are “classic” antivax the same as those that refuse the Covid-19 vaccine?

The authors conducted a Twitter experiment in Indonesia as part of a childhood immunization campaign in 2015-2016. Thirty-seven celebrities (television or music stars, actors and actresses, political figures or prominent intellectuals), with an average of 260,000 followers each on Twitter – more than 11 million people in total –, as well as more than 1,000 “ordinary” individuals with Twitter accounts took part in this experiment. This consisted of observing the behavior of users of the social network and comparing the effect of the same message on vaccination when it comes from a celebrity rather than an ordinary individual. The authors also studied the difference between a celebrity simply retweeting a message and being the author.

Facts and Beliefs

The same tweet is 72% more likely to be retweeted when it comes from a celebrity than an ordinary person. The effect is much stronger when the celebrity is the author of the tweet, rather than when they retweet. Celebrity posts don’t just affect behavior on social media. The survey found that celebrity followers who tweeted about vaccinations were more knowledgeable about the vaccine than celebrity followers who did not tweet. Celebrity tweets were also associated with higher vaccination rates among followers’ relatives. In addition, these tweets were particularly effective in combating misinformation, such as the myth that the vaccine would not be halal.

You have 34.46% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1643186748) } [6]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(52) "Thich Nhat Hanh, the old Buddhist sage and the child" ["link"]=> string(80) "https://movs.world/opinions/thich-nhat-hanh-the-old-buddhist-sage-and-the-child/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Tue, 25 Jan 2022 22:43:25 +0000" ["category"]=> string(38) "OpinionsBuddhistchildHanhNhatSageThich" ["guid"]=> string(80) "https://movs.world/opinions/thich-nhat-hanh-the-old-buddhist-sage-and-the-child/" ["description"]=> string(569) "Le moine bouddhiste Thich Nhat Hanh à la pagode Vinh Nghiem, Ho Chi Minh-Ville (Vietnam), mars 2007. AP Known throughout the world, Thich Nhat Hanh received us in 2014, at the dawn of his 88th birthday, for what was one of his last interviews. Victim of a stroke the same year, he hardly appeared publicly. ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(3887) "

Known throughout the world, Thich Nhat Hanh received us in 2014, at the dawn of his 88th birthday, for what was one of his last interviews. Victim of a stroke the same year, he hardly appeared publicly. He died on January 22 in Vietnam, at the age of 95. Today we are republishing this portrait made in Plum Village, Dordogne, the Buddhist community he founded in 1969.

Portrait. Thich Nhat Hanh has made his life a commitment. If he is considered today as a sage by his many disciples, he was no less profoundly revolutionary, denouncing very early on the religious sclerosis in his country. Ordained a monk at the age of 16, he immediately brought together many young Vietnamese animated by the vision of modern Buddhism, ready to engage in the world.

He thus founded, at the age of 24, the An Quang Institute for Advanced Buddhist Studies, which would become the cradle of the non-violent struggle against the Vietnam War between 1963 and 1975. In 1965, he created the School for Youth in social service which brings together nearly 10,000 social workers, true peacemakers in the midst of war. “Without community, we cannot work” is a conviction he shared with Martin Luther King (1929-1968), from their first meeting in Chicago (1966). For the Buddhist monk, a politician, a teacher, a therapist, a man or a businesswoman should have the concern to constitute a sangha, a community, to be able to ” to achieve their dreams “.

Read also A committed current, breaking with a tradition of submission

His Western training (he studied at Princeton, in the United States) reinforces in him the spirit of openness and this taste for a Buddhism accessible to the greatest number. In 1966, after resisting threats and persecution for years, Thich Nhat Hanh was forced into exile. He found refuge in France in 1969, where he created, in 1982, the Plum Village monastery, in Bordeaux, today one of the most important in the country. The “beloved community”, to use the expression of his friend Martin Luther King, has since made it possible to present “meditation in action”, welcoming thousands of lay people each year.

“A single smile can change the world”

The natural authority of Thich Nhat Hanh, which imposes itself on a stern face, contrasts surprisingly with the luminous smile he wears as soon as he begins to speak. “A single smile can transform the world”, the Zen monk knows it. To meet him is to discover an infinitely solid man who, however, knew how to keep intact the vulnerability and the tenderness of the child he carries within him.

You have 63.4% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" } ["summary"]=> string(569) "Le moine bouddhiste Thich Nhat Hanh à la pagode Vinh Nghiem, Ho Chi Minh-Ville (Vietnam), mars 2007. AP Known throughout the world, Thich Nhat Hanh received us in 2014, at the dawn of his 88th birthday, for what was one of his last interviews. Victim of a stroke the same year, he hardly appeared publicly. ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(3887) "

Known throughout the world, Thich Nhat Hanh received us in 2014, at the dawn of his 88th birthday, for what was one of his last interviews. Victim of a stroke the same year, he hardly appeared publicly. He died on January 22 in Vietnam, at the age of 95. Today we are republishing this portrait made in Plum Village, Dordogne, the Buddhist community he founded in 1969.

Portrait. Thich Nhat Hanh has made his life a commitment. If he is considered today as a sage by his many disciples, he was no less profoundly revolutionary, denouncing very early on the religious sclerosis in his country. Ordained a monk at the age of 16, he immediately brought together many young Vietnamese animated by the vision of modern Buddhism, ready to engage in the world.

He thus founded, at the age of 24, the An Quang Institute for Advanced Buddhist Studies, which would become the cradle of the non-violent struggle against the Vietnam War between 1963 and 1975. In 1965, he created the School for Youth in social service which brings together nearly 10,000 social workers, true peacemakers in the midst of war. “Without community, we cannot work” is a conviction he shared with Martin Luther King (1929-1968), from their first meeting in Chicago (1966). For the Buddhist monk, a politician, a teacher, a therapist, a man or a businesswoman should have the concern to constitute a sangha, a community, to be able to ” to achieve their dreams “.

Read also A committed current, breaking with a tradition of submission

His Western training (he studied at Princeton, in the United States) reinforces in him the spirit of openness and this taste for a Buddhism accessible to the greatest number. In 1966, after resisting threats and persecution for years, Thich Nhat Hanh was forced into exile. He found refuge in France in 1969, where he created, in 1982, the Plum Village monastery, in Bordeaux, today one of the most important in the country. The “beloved community”, to use the expression of his friend Martin Luther King, has since made it possible to present “meditation in action”, welcoming thousands of lay people each year.

“A single smile can change the world”

The natural authority of Thich Nhat Hanh, which imposes itself on a stern face, contrasts surprisingly with the luminous smile he wears as soon as he begins to speak. “A single smile can transform the world”, the Zen monk knows it. To meet him is to discover an infinitely solid man who, however, knew how to keep intact the vulnerability and the tenderness of the child he carries within him.

You have 63.4% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1643150605) } [7]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(90) "“Readers’ voices” – Why don’t we let the vaccinated people resume a normal life?" ["link"]=> string(102) "https://movs.world/opinions/readers-voices-why-dont-we-let-the-vaccinated-people-resume-a-normal-life/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Tue, 25 Jan 2022 12:42:25 +0000" ["category"]=> string(57) "OpinionsDontlifenormalpeoplereadersResumevaccinatedvoices" ["guid"]=> string(102) "https://movs.world/opinions/readers-voices-why-dont-we-let-the-vaccinated-people-resume-a-normal-life/" ["description"]=> string(776) "La little sentence from Emmanuel Macron who wishes “annoy” the non-vaccinated made the whole of France react, probably beyond its expectations: elected officials, media, doctors, citizens, everyone felt obliged to give their opinion on the question. And yet, is this the main problem? Obviously, France would emerge greater with a president who unites and supports ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(6319) "

La little sentence from Emmanuel Macron who wishes “annoy” the non-vaccinated made the whole of France react, probably beyond its expectations: elected officials, media, doctors, citizens, everyone felt obliged to give their opinion on the question. And yet, is this the main problem?

Obviously, France would emerge greater with a president who unites and supports his citizens rather than with a president who insults and divides his population. Obviously, the future candidate seeks to treat his elderly electorate who have been vaccinated to protect themselves and who have risen against the non-vaccinated. Obviously, the future candidate also seeks to push his political opponents to their limits so that they position themselves clearly on the health crisis.

Read also “Words of readers” – Does Emmanuel Macron do populism?

But the exit of Emmanuel Macron does not stop at these interests alone and the fact of becoming the center of conversations. Rather, he acted here as a magician. While everyone is commenting on his little sentence, no one is thinking of taking an interest in the basic problem: why does Macron also piss off the vaccinated?

For these could make him pay much more for the measures he takes against them than against the non-vaccinated; they have made an effort and yet they still have to make others: imposition of teleworking on all employees who can and, thereby, obligation for all executives and managers of yet another exhausting reorganization of work, restriction of leisure activities of those vaccinated by reinstating gauges for all large gatherings, concerts, sporting events, prohibition of eating in transport or consuming standing in bars, etc.

Demonstration against the introduction of the vaccination pass in front of the Council of State, on January 8 in Paris.

Clearly, all these measures, and many others, deeply hamper the vaccinated: if the vaccinated are not at risk, why force them to additional restrictions? Why, since the start of the school year, have the vaccinated people had to continue to wear the mask and maintain the barrier gestures? Why did you ask them to take precautions during the holidays, to get tested before meeting, to limit the number of guests and in fine to wear the mask during their reunion?

And why extend these restrictions even further after the holidays? Why prevent them from having access to discotheques? Why suspend them from all moments of conviviality in the professional setting? Why prohibit the simultaneous presence of two colleagues in the same office when these professionals have been obliged to submit to the health pass since the end of August under penalty of being suspended (in other words that they have all been vaccinated since)? Why abolish vow ceremonies, which are one of the last social ties between elected officials and their constituents, especially in small towns? Why should vaccinees continue to limit their social interactions?

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Covid-19: with a timetable for lifting restrictions, the government wants to restore prospects before the presidential election

Why prolong and extend all these coercive measures if the vaccinated are protected and protect those around them? In reality, all these measures also annoy the vaccinated. I don’t like to use “big” words, but what the president is doing to the unvaccinated population but also to the entire population, including the vaccinated, is pure violence, including citizens, and doctors and journalists, no longer even realize. And Emmanuel Macron’s little sentence is perhaps only there to make all those vaccinated forget that they are also affected by many restrictions on freedom, even if compared to the non-vaccinated, they can continue to feel privileged.

It would therefore rather be necessary to analyze the abuse of language of the President of the Republic as an additional communication strategy, making it possible to lie, distort reality and evade the main subject(s). That is to say that words take precedence over the factual and decision-making realities taken during his mandate (this is valid in terms of health crisis as in any other field). Commentators do not focus on his record, on his actions, on his laws, but only on what he says he has done or wants to do, which is very different.

In fine, in addition to dwelling on the presidential declarations, it would therefore rather be necessary to look into his actions and it is this question which should be on everyone’s lips and in all the newspapers: why, after two or three doses, the vaccinated can’t they go back to a normal life?

Beatrice Bouteloup, Argentan (Orne)

The world

" } ["summary"]=> string(776) "La little sentence from Emmanuel Macron who wishes “annoy” the non-vaccinated made the whole of France react, probably beyond its expectations: elected officials, media, doctors, citizens, everyone felt obliged to give their opinion on the question. And yet, is this the main problem? Obviously, France would emerge greater with a president who unites and supports ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(6319) "

La little sentence from Emmanuel Macron who wishes “annoy” the non-vaccinated made the whole of France react, probably beyond its expectations: elected officials, media, doctors, citizens, everyone felt obliged to give their opinion on the question. And yet, is this the main problem?

Obviously, France would emerge greater with a president who unites and supports his citizens rather than with a president who insults and divides his population. Obviously, the future candidate seeks to treat his elderly electorate who have been vaccinated to protect themselves and who have risen against the non-vaccinated. Obviously, the future candidate also seeks to push his political opponents to their limits so that they position themselves clearly on the health crisis.

Read also “Words of readers” – Does Emmanuel Macron do populism?

But the exit of Emmanuel Macron does not stop at these interests alone and the fact of becoming the center of conversations. Rather, he acted here as a magician. While everyone is commenting on his little sentence, no one is thinking of taking an interest in the basic problem: why does Macron also piss off the vaccinated?

For these could make him pay much more for the measures he takes against them than against the non-vaccinated; they have made an effort and yet they still have to make others: imposition of teleworking on all employees who can and, thereby, obligation for all executives and managers of yet another exhausting reorganization of work, restriction of leisure activities of those vaccinated by reinstating gauges for all large gatherings, concerts, sporting events, prohibition of eating in transport or consuming standing in bars, etc.

Demonstration against the introduction of the vaccination pass in front of the Council of State, on January 8 in Paris.

Clearly, all these measures, and many others, deeply hamper the vaccinated: if the vaccinated are not at risk, why force them to additional restrictions? Why, since the start of the school year, have the vaccinated people had to continue to wear the mask and maintain the barrier gestures? Why did you ask them to take precautions during the holidays, to get tested before meeting, to limit the number of guests and in fine to wear the mask during their reunion?

And why extend these restrictions even further after the holidays? Why prevent them from having access to discotheques? Why suspend them from all moments of conviviality in the professional setting? Why prohibit the simultaneous presence of two colleagues in the same office when these professionals have been obliged to submit to the health pass since the end of August under penalty of being suspended (in other words that they have all been vaccinated since)? Why abolish vow ceremonies, which are one of the last social ties between elected officials and their constituents, especially in small towns? Why should vaccinees continue to limit their social interactions?

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Covid-19: with a timetable for lifting restrictions, the government wants to restore prospects before the presidential election

Why prolong and extend all these coercive measures if the vaccinated are protected and protect those around them? In reality, all these measures also annoy the vaccinated. I don’t like to use “big” words, but what the president is doing to the unvaccinated population but also to the entire population, including the vaccinated, is pure violence, including citizens, and doctors and journalists, no longer even realize. And Emmanuel Macron’s little sentence is perhaps only there to make all those vaccinated forget that they are also affected by many restrictions on freedom, even if compared to the non-vaccinated, they can continue to feel privileged.

It would therefore rather be necessary to analyze the abuse of language of the President of the Republic as an additional communication strategy, making it possible to lie, distort reality and evade the main subject(s). That is to say that words take precedence over the factual and decision-making realities taken during his mandate (this is valid in terms of health crisis as in any other field). Commentators do not focus on his record, on his actions, on his laws, but only on what he says he has done or wants to do, which is very different.

In fine, in addition to dwelling on the presidential declarations, it would therefore rather be necessary to look into his actions and it is this question which should be on everyone’s lips and in all the newspapers: why, after two or three doses, the vaccinated can’t they go back to a normal life?

Beatrice Bouteloup, Argentan (Orne)

The world

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1643114545) } [8]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(45) "“In the United States, the crash is here”" ["link"]=> string(67) "https://movs.world/opinions/in-the-united-states-the-crash-is-here/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Tue, 25 Jan 2022 02:42:37 +0000" ["category"]=> string(25) "OpinionscrashStatesunited" ["guid"]=> string(67) "https://movs.world/opinions/in-the-united-states-the-crash-is-here/" ["description"]=> string(540) "On Wall Street, January 21, 2022. COURTNEY CROW / AP Chronic. The French do not know it yet, protected from the jolts of the financial markets by the money printing of the European Central Bank (ECB) and by the French budget deficits, but the crash is there. Wall Street is experiencing a serious thaw and ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(3655) "

Chronic. The French do not know it yet, protected from the jolts of the financial markets by the money printing of the European Central Bank (ECB) and by the French budget deficits, but the crash is there. Wall Street is experiencing a serious thaw and experienced its worst week from January 18 to 21 since the start of the pandemic. The decline is no longer sparing technology stars (Apple, Amazon, Netflix, etc.), and the Nasdaq has lost more than 15% since its peak in November 2021. The general S&P 500 index is down nearly 8%, with no good news in sight.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Severe correction on Wall Street

Ah yes: the phenomenon should delight the slayers of billionaires. According to the Bloomberg agency, Elon Musk (Tesla) lost nearly 100 billion dollars, his fortune having fallen from 338 billion in November to 243 billion on January 21. Jeff Bezos, boss of Amazon, has “melted” 45 billion and only holds 177 billion. For Bill Gates, the drop is 25 billion dollars (with an estimated fortune of 129 billion). Since 1is January 2022, the first ten billionaires on the planet have lost 125 billion dollars, or 9% of their fortune, without anything changing on the planet. They had earned 402 billion in 2021.

In any crash, you end up finding a winner. Warren Buffett, owner of Berkshire Hathaway, is doing well: the wise Omaha investor in traditional stocks (plus Apple) had performed poorly during the pandemic. But these resist better in periods of rising interest rates. Slowly, the “turtle” Buffett is catching up with the “hares” of Wall Street, in particular Cathie Wood, star of recent years for having invested in hypergrowth stocks, boosted by free money and the pandemic. His ARKK fund has halved in a year, with the end of rampant speculation, the receding pandemic and the prospect of rising rates (tomorrow’s dividends and therefore stocks are worth less if the discount rate rises ).

The stock market opens its eyes

The impoverishment of billionaires does not make anyone richer. Rather, the case threatens to flush out stock marketers, who had found their way to Wall Street through forced pandemic savings, and eat away at Americans’ retirement funds. This is likely to aggravate the sluggishness of households, already depressed by inflation (7% in December) which is reducing real wages (down 2.3% annually). Maintaining consumption is therefore not guaranteed.

You have 39.16% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" } ["summary"]=> string(540) "On Wall Street, January 21, 2022. COURTNEY CROW / AP Chronic. The French do not know it yet, protected from the jolts of the financial markets by the money printing of the European Central Bank (ECB) and by the French budget deficits, but the crash is there. Wall Street is experiencing a serious thaw and ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(3655) "

Chronic. The French do not know it yet, protected from the jolts of the financial markets by the money printing of the European Central Bank (ECB) and by the French budget deficits, but the crash is there. Wall Street is experiencing a serious thaw and experienced its worst week from January 18 to 21 since the start of the pandemic. The decline is no longer sparing technology stars (Apple, Amazon, Netflix, etc.), and the Nasdaq has lost more than 15% since its peak in November 2021. The general S&P 500 index is down nearly 8%, with no good news in sight.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Severe correction on Wall Street

Ah yes: the phenomenon should delight the slayers of billionaires. According to the Bloomberg agency, Elon Musk (Tesla) lost nearly 100 billion dollars, his fortune having fallen from 338 billion in November to 243 billion on January 21. Jeff Bezos, boss of Amazon, has “melted” 45 billion and only holds 177 billion. For Bill Gates, the drop is 25 billion dollars (with an estimated fortune of 129 billion). Since 1is January 2022, the first ten billionaires on the planet have lost 125 billion dollars, or 9% of their fortune, without anything changing on the planet. They had earned 402 billion in 2021.

In any crash, you end up finding a winner. Warren Buffett, owner of Berkshire Hathaway, is doing well: the wise Omaha investor in traditional stocks (plus Apple) had performed poorly during the pandemic. But these resist better in periods of rising interest rates. Slowly, the “turtle” Buffett is catching up with the “hares” of Wall Street, in particular Cathie Wood, star of recent years for having invested in hypergrowth stocks, boosted by free money and the pandemic. His ARKK fund has halved in a year, with the end of rampant speculation, the receding pandemic and the prospect of rising rates (tomorrow’s dividends and therefore stocks are worth less if the discount rate rises ).

The stock market opens its eyes

The impoverishment of billionaires does not make anyone richer. Rather, the case threatens to flush out stock marketers, who had found their way to Wall Street through forced pandemic savings, and eat away at Americans’ retirement funds. This is likely to aggravate the sluggishness of households, already depressed by inflation (7% in December) which is reducing real wages (down 2.3% annually). Maintaining consumption is therefore not guaranteed.

You have 39.16% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1643078557) } [9]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(49) "Scrolls, tablets and codices, the book revolution" ["link"]=> string(76) "https://movs.world/opinions/scrolls-tablets-and-codices-the-book-revolution/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "Susan Hally" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sun, 23 Jan 2022 20:38:44 +0000" ["category"]=> string(43) "Opinionsbookcodicesrevolutionscrollstablets" ["guid"]=> string(76) "https://movs.world/opinions/scrolls-tablets-and-codices-the-book-revolution/" ["description"]=> string(614) "The Codex Sinaiticus, a 4th century Bible. KIERAN DOHERTY/REUTERS “At the roots of the book. Metamorphoses of an object from Antiquity to the Middle Ages”, by Filippo Ronconi, Editions de l’EHESS, coll. “In times & places”, 352 p., €24.80. In 1958, Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin published The appearance of the book (Albin Michel). The ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4659) "

“At the roots of the book. Metamorphoses of an object from Antiquity to the Middle Ages”, by Filippo Ronconi, Editions de l’EHESS, coll. “In times & places”, 352 p., €24.80.

In 1958, Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin published The appearance of the book (Albin Michel). The work was pioneering, but its title unfortunate. Should we, in fact, think that the book is a “newcomer” to the XVe century, born with the printing press? Obviously not, as shown At the roots of the book, the erudite and fascinating investigation led by Filippo Ronconi. It follows over the centuries, between archaic Greece and the twelfthe century, the successive or competing materialities of the forms of the book and, more generally, of the supports of writing. In this long period, an essential mutation, which dates from the first centuries of the Christian era, was the invention of the codex: the book made up of notebooks bound together which is still ours.

The codex is easy to handle, portable and sturdy with its parchment pages. Indeed, the exceptional conservation of codices in papyrus in the sands of Egypt must not mislead: they are only one “local adjustment” using the most immediately available material. The codex can accommodate in the same book a long work or several shorter texts. It allows readers to write in the margins. It thus makes possible what forbade the rolls of the Greek world, which became Latin with the Hellenization of the Roman elites from the IIIe century BC. The reader of the scroll could not write while reading since his two hands were mobilized by the object and, for him, large-scale works were necessarily distributed among several books, some of which could get lost.

The medium on which the gods liked to write

Filippo Ronconi enriches our understanding of the “codex revolution”. He underlines, first, the gap between the invention and its mass adoption. It is only in the IIIe or IVe century that all its possibilities were exploited. Christian readers, often regarded as pioneers in the use of the codex, do not seem to be an exception in the common evolution and it is wise to “to relativize the role played by Christianity in the expansion of this innovation”. Filippo Ronconi also insists on the fact that the codex did not completely eliminate the scrolls. They remain present in the liturgical uses in Byzantium and in Italy as well as in the practices of the chancelleries.

Read also (2009): The entire oldest of the Bibles, the “Codex Sinaiticus”, has been put online

His book is also attached to another object that has passed through the time of scrolls and then that of the codex: wax tablets. Before the IIIe century BC. J.-C., they were in Rome the principal support of the writing and they then preserved their documentary and school uses at the same time as their symbolic value in the iconographic representations, where they were the support on which the gods liked to write. Organized in polyptychs, the wax tablets show strong morphological kinship with the notebooks and sheets of the codices. Hence the idea that “in the Greco-Roman world, the scroll was only a parenthesis”.

You have 14.34% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" } ["summary"]=> string(614) "The Codex Sinaiticus, a 4th century Bible. KIERAN DOHERTY/REUTERS “At the roots of the book. Metamorphoses of an object from Antiquity to the Middle Ages”, by Filippo Ronconi, Editions de l’EHESS, coll. “In times & places”, 352 p., €24.80. In 1958, Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin published The appearance of the book (Albin Michel). The ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4659) "

“At the roots of the book. Metamorphoses of an object from Antiquity to the Middle Ages”, by Filippo Ronconi, Editions de l’EHESS, coll. “In times & places”, 352 p., €24.80.

In 1958, Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin published The appearance of the book (Albin Michel). The work was pioneering, but its title unfortunate. Should we, in fact, think that the book is a “newcomer” to the XVe century, born with the printing press? Obviously not, as shown At the roots of the book, the erudite and fascinating investigation led by Filippo Ronconi. It follows over the centuries, between archaic Greece and the twelfthe century, the successive or competing materialities of the forms of the book and, more generally, of the supports of writing. In this long period, an essential mutation, which dates from the first centuries of the Christian era, was the invention of the codex: the book made up of notebooks bound together which is still ours.

The codex is easy to handle, portable and sturdy with its parchment pages. Indeed, the exceptional conservation of codices in papyrus in the sands of Egypt must not mislead: they are only one “local adjustment” using the most immediately available material. The codex can accommodate in the same book a long work or several shorter texts. It allows readers to write in the margins. It thus makes possible what forbade the rolls of the Greek world, which became Latin with the Hellenization of the Roman elites from the IIIe century BC. The reader of the scroll could not write while reading since his two hands were mobilized by the object and, for him, large-scale works were necessarily distributed among several books, some of which could get lost.

The medium on which the gods liked to write

Filippo Ronconi enriches our understanding of the “codex revolution”. He underlines, first, the gap between the invention and its mass adoption. It is only in the IIIe or IVe century that all its possibilities were exploited. Christian readers, often regarded as pioneers in the use of the codex, do not seem to be an exception in the common evolution and it is wise to “to relativize the role played by Christianity in the expansion of this innovation”. Filippo Ronconi also insists on the fact that the codex did not completely eliminate the scrolls. They remain present in the liturgical uses in Byzantium and in Italy as well as in the practices of the chancelleries.

Read also (2009): The entire oldest of the Bibles, the “Codex Sinaiticus”, has been put online

His book is also attached to another object that has passed through the time of scrolls and then that of the codex: wax tablets. Before the IIIe century BC. J.-C., they were in Rome the principal support of the writing and they then preserved their documentary and school uses at the same time as their symbolic value in the iconographic representations, where they were the support on which the gods liked to write. Organized in polyptychs, the wax tablets show strong morphological kinship with the notebooks and sheets of the codices. Hence the idea that “in the Greco-Roman world, the scroll was only a parenthesis”.

You have 14.34% of this article left to read. The following is for subscribers only.

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1642970324) } } ["channel"]=> array(7) { ["title"]=> string(23) "Opinions – Movs.World" ["link"]=> string(18) "https://movs.world" ["lastbuilddate"]=> string(31) "Wed, 02 Feb 2022 01:01:38 +0000" ["language"]=> string(5) "en-US" ["sy"]=> array(2) { ["updateperiod"]=> string(9) " hourly " ["updatefrequency"]=> string(4) " 1 " } ["generator"]=> string(30) "https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3" ["tagline"]=> NULL } ["textinput"]=> array(0) { } ["image"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(76) "https://movs.world/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/cropped-fuzzyskunk-150x150.png" ["title"]=> string(23) "Opinions – Movs.World" ["link"]=> string(18) "https://movs.world" ["width"]=> string(2) "32" ["height"]=> string(2) "32" } ["feed_type"]=> string(3) "RSS" ["feed_version"]=> string(3) "2.0" ["encoding"]=> string(5) "UTF-8" ["_source_encoding"]=> string(0) "" ["ERROR"]=> string(0) "" ["WARNING"]=> string(0) "" ["_CONTENT_CONSTRUCTS"]=> array(6) { [0]=> string(7) "content" [1]=> string(7) "summary" [2]=> string(4) "info" [3]=> string(5) "title" [4]=> string(7) "tagline" [5]=> string(9) "copyright" } ["_KNOWN_ENCODINGS"]=> array(3) { [0]=> string(5) "UTF-8" [1]=> string(8) "US-ASCII" [2]=> string(10) "ISO-8859-1" } ["stack"]=> array(0) { } ["inchannel"]=> bool(false) ["initem"]=> bool(false) ["incontent"]=> bool(false) ["intextinput"]=> bool(false) ["inimage"]=> bool(false) ["current_namespace"]=> bool(false) ["last_modified"]=> string(31) "Mon, 16 May 2022 14:35:37 GMT " ["etag"]=> string(29) "uViuAZN91cf8t83aDg+AuNiHACM " }